What are Super PACs?

Understanding the Influence of Independent Political Committees

Introduction to Super PACs

Super PACs, short for "Super Political Action Committees," are influential players in the realm of American politics. These independent political committees emerged following two pivotal Supreme Court decisions: Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) and SpeechNow.org v. FEC (2010). These landmark rulings paved the way for the creation of Super PACs, allowing them to wield considerable financial power in elections.

The Birth of Super PACs

Prior to these Supreme Court decisions, political action committees (PACs) had restrictions on how much money they could raise and spend on behalf of candidates. Citizens United v. FEC, in particular, overturned certain provisions of the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (commonly known as the McCain-Feingold Act), which prohibited corporations and unions from using general treasury funds for electioneering communications. This meant that they could not directly advocate for or against specific candidates close to elections.

However, the Supreme Court's ruling in Citizens United changed the landscape dramatically. The Court ruled that political spending was a form of protected speech under the First Amendment, enabling corporations, unions, and individuals to spend unlimited funds on independent political activities, as long as they did not coordinate with candidates or their campaigns. SpeechNow.org v. FEC further solidified this by removing the limits on donations to groups that only make independent expenditures.

Key Features of Super PACs

  1. Independence: Super PACs are independent of candidates and political parties, allowing them to operate without any direct coordination or collaboration.

  2. Unlimited Fundraising: Super PACs can raise funds from various sources, including corporations, unions, and individuals. There are no limitations on donation amounts, resulting in potentially vast financial resources.

  3. Unrestricted Spending: Super PACs can spend the funds they raise on a wide array of political activities, including advertising, canvassing, and issue advocacy, provided they do not expressly advocate for a candidate's election or defeat.

  4. Disclosure Requirements: Super PACs are required to disclose their donors and expenditures to the Federal Election Commission (FEC), allowing for some level of transparency in their financial activities. However, some Super PACs exploit loopholes to avoid full disclosure, giving rise to concerns about "dark money."

The Role of Super PACs in Elections

Super PACs have become significant players in electoral campaigns, primarily due to their ability to pour substantial amounts of money into advertising and other promotional efforts. They can produce television ads, digital campaigns, and direct mailers that can sway public opinion and influence voter behavior. This financial influence has led to increased scrutiny over the role of money in politics and concerns about potential corruption and undue influence on candidates and officeholders.


Super PACs have become a defining feature of American politics, impacting the way campaigns are conducted and how candidates communicate with the electorate. While proponents argue that they enhance free speech and provide diverse viewpoints, critics worry about the potential for corruption and the influence of special interests. Understanding the workings of Super PACs is essential for citizens to be informed participants in the democratic process and advocate for campaign finance reform that aligns with the principles of transparency and fairness.